Learn how and when to remove this template message Kali stick seminar group at Ben Poon's Riseup Crossfit center by Terry Lim and Maurice Novoa Ruiz in Melbourne Australia The arts had no traditional belting or grading systems as they were taught informally. It was said that to proclaim a student a "master" was considered ridiculous and a virtual death warrant as the individual would become challenged left and right to potentially lethal duels by other Arnisadores looking to make names for themselves. Belt ranking was a recent addition adopted from Japanese arts such as Karate and Judo , which had become more popular with Filipinos. They were added to give structure to the systems, and to be able to compete for the attention of students. With regards to its spread outside the Philippines, Arnis was brought to Hawaii and California as far back as the s by Filipino migrant workers. Even then, instructors teaching Arnis in the s and 70s were often reprimanded by their elders for publicly teaching a part of their culture that had been preserved through secrecy.
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Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA)
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Phylogeny of R1b If you are new to genetic genealogy, please check our Introduction to phylogenetics to understand how to read a phylogenetic tree. This haplogroup has been identified in the remains of a 24, year-old boy from the Altai region, in south-central Siberia Raghavan et al. This individual belonged to a tribe of mammoth hunters that may have roamed across Siberia and parts of Europe during the Paleolithic. The oldest forms of R1b M, P25, L are found dispersed at very low frequencies from Western Europe to India, a vast region where could have roamed the nomadic R1b hunter-gatherers during the Ice Age.